Lesson Twelve: -ing in Na'vi

Kaltxì nìmun! This time I wanna talk about the three different ways to say -ing in Na'vi.

In English, we use the same -ing ending in at least three different ways. In Na'vi, all three of those translate to three different ways instead of using the same one.

In English, the three main uses for -ing are as in the following examples:

  1. She is hunting a hexapede .
  2. A hunting thanator is dangerous.
  3. Hunting is fun.

In Na'vi, these same three are:

  1. Pol teraron yerikit.
  2. Tusarona palulukan lu lehrrap.
  3. tusaron lu 'o'.

In 1, we use the position 1 infix er to show that "hunt" is an ongoing action, "hunting". Note that er already has the meaning of "am/is/are doing" built right in. So it's redundant and incorrect to say stuff like *Po lu teraron.

In 2, the infix us is used. us is another position 1 infix, but instead of making a verb ongoing, it turns it into an adjective! Tusarona palulukan, "a hunting thanator" -- "hunting" is an adjective describing the thanator, rather than saying "the thanator is hunting", which would use er. Note that because the verb has been turned into an adjective, you must use -a- with it. Also, us adjectives cannot be used with lu, as in *Po lu tusaron. You must say that as Po teraron, "he is hunting."

In 3, we have taken the us form, and added the - prefix to make it into a noun. You can add - and us to any verb to make it mean "(the activity of) verb-ing". tusaron lu 'o'. (the activity of) hunting is fun.

Hope this clears things up.


Edits provided by @NeytiriTeTskaha 11-Mar-2015

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