Lesson Eight: iv

Kaltxì. This time we talk about iv , a bit that goes inside an action word, like am and ìm do, if you remember those from a previous lesson.

iv - When It's Required

Getting right to the point, here are some examples of when you know you use iv .


  1. Oe tsun kivä | I can go.
  2. Nga zene yivom | You must eat.
  3. Nga ke zene ziva'u. | You don't need/have to come.
  4. Nga zenke tiverkup! | You mustn't die!
  5. Po fmi tspivang ngat. | He tries to kill you
  6. Oe kan tspivang pot | I mean/intend/aim to kill him
  7. Fo new rivey. | They want to live.
  8. Oe nulnew tìkangkem sivi nì'awtu. | I prefer to work alone.
  9. Oe mamay' mivakto pa'liti; ke sunu oeru tsakem. | I tried ride Pa'li; not be-pleasant to me that action. -> I tried out pa'li riding; I don't like it.
  10. Ftang tìsraw seykivi pot! | Stop hurting her!
  11. Ayoeng sngä'i txivula ko. | Let's start buliding.
  12. Var tivìran vaykrr ngal tse'a kilvanit | Keep/continue to walk until you see a river.
  13. Tukeru poltxe Akwey nam’ake, omum futa ke tsun poe stivo. | Akwey spoke to Tuke confidently, knowing that she couldn’t refuse.

Each of these sentences has two actions. The first one causes the second one to have iv inside. The actions which cause iv to be used are all marked as vtrm. or vim. in the dictionary.

Side Note: Any vtrm. can be used alone like a regular vtr. See Lesson One about using vtr. words.

Anyway, Here they are, listed out:


ftang to stop
sngä'i.... to start; to begin
tsun can; to be able to
var to continue
zene must; to have to
zenke musn't; must not


fmi to try; to attempt
kan to aim; to intend
may' to try; to sample; to evaluate
new to want
nulnew.... to prefer
sto to refuse

Also, iv will be used inside the action that comes after either of these two words:

fte so that; in order to
fteke.... so that not; lest


  1. Nga zene kivar poru fte tsivun pivlltxe sì tivìran nìayoeng | You must teach him so that ((he)) can speak and walk like us.
  2. Txewì tskxekeng si fte yivora' säwäsulit | Txewì trains/practices in order to win the competition

Example 14 shows you can use fte or fteke along with one or more of the vtrm. or vim. and cause iv after iv to be used.

Word order

Rule: when using a word from these lists, it must come somehow before the other action in the sentence. See above examples.

Nìvingkap, those examples have English word order just for ease of understanding. Flexible order still applies, but follow the above rule.

Here is every correct version and word order of example 5 (d and f are special forms, f is 50% acceptable):

  1. Po fmi tspivang ngat. | He tries to kill you
  2. Po fmi ngati tspivang. | He tries to kill you
  3. Po ngati fmi tspivang. | He tries to kill you
  4. Pol ngati fmi tspivang. | He tries to kill you
  5. Ngati Po fmi tspivang. | He tries to kill you
  6. Ngati Pol fmi tspivang. | He tries to kill you
  7. Ngati fmi tspivang po. | He tries to kill you
  8. Fmi tspivang ngati po. | He tries to kill you
  9. Fmi tspivang po ngat. | He tries to kill you
  10. Fmi po tspivang ngat. | He tries to kill you

iv - General Use

Okey so that was one major usage of iv. The other usage is to turn hard facts into hopes/wishes. Some popular examples:


  1. Eywa ngahu ((livu)) | ((May)) Eywa be with you
  2. Txon lefpom ((livu ngaru)) | Peaceful night ((be to you))
  3. nawma sa'nok lrrtok sivi | May the great mother smile

Notice the mood here. It's not hard fact, but more like wishing or expressing hope. That's what iv is all about when it's not required by grammar.

Popular phrases, examples 16 and 17, have parts left out. It's like in English when you say "Good night", you are leaving off "Have a" or "I hope that you have a"

Update 11-Mar-2015 to include sto (to refuse)

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