Lesson Six: This and That, and Stuff

Kaltxì nìmun. This time, let's talk about "this" and "that" a little bit, and about using words marked as adp. in the dictionary, such as in, under, behind, across, etc.

This and That

So, to get started... This and that. How many times have you wanted to say something in Na'vi like This tree is huge and That plant is poisonous, etc? Well, it's super easy to do this. We have - and tsa- which go onto the beginning of the word.

- this
tsa- that

For example:

  1. utral tsawl lu nìtxan nang!
    This tree is huge!
  2. Lu tsa'ewll txumnga'.
    That plant is poisonous.

These and Those

Mìftxele, It's very similar and just as easy to say these and those. It's just - and tsa- combined with me+, pxe+, or ay+ (remember those? ) So you get:

fìme+ these (two)
fìpxe+ these (three)
fay+ these
tsame+ those (two)
tsapxe+ those (three)
tsay+ those

There's just one exception to this. 'u. for this word, it's always me+, pxe+, or ay+ first, then - or tsa-. So the following are correct.:

  • mefì'u
  • pxefì'u
  • ayfì'u
  • mesa'u
  • pxesa'u
  • aysa'u

More adp. words

Now. Remember in Lesson Three I said that me+, pxe+, and ay+ weren't the only things that cause a word to change its first letter? Well, I'm about to list every single other word that does this. This would be good to remember.

fpi+ for the sake/benifit of
ìlä + according to, by, via
lisre + by, before
+ in, on
nuä + beyond
pxisre + right before
ro+ at
sko+ as, in the role of
sre+ before
+ against

These words here are all adp. in the dictionary. They are used like this...

For example:

  1. oel wutsoti hawl fpi soaia.
    I prepare dinner for the family.

  2. Ìlä Feyral, muntxa soli Ralu sì Newey nìwan mesrram.
    According to Peyral, Ralu and Newey were secretly married the day before yesterday.

  3. Tìflä latem ìlä seynga ftxey fkol sänumet livek fuke.
    Success changes according to the answer whether instruction is followed or not.
    Success depends on whether or not one follows instructions.

  4. Kem si lisre srray
    Do it by tomorrow.

  5. Fìtrr letsranten ftxozä si ko.
    Let's celebrate on this important day.

  6. Oeri skxir a syokx tìsraw si.
    As for me, the wound on the hand hurts.
    The wound on my hand hurts.

  7. Awnga kelku si nuä ayram alusìng.
    We live beyond the flying mountains.

  8. tsampxisre hawl aysamsiyu.
    The warriors prepare right before the war.

  9. Po käteng soaiahu txepro.
    He spends time with family at the fire

  10. Sko Sahìk ke tsun oe mìftxele tsngivawvìk.
    As Tsahik, I cannot weep over this matter.

  11. tätxaw sre fwa sngap zize'
    Return before the hellfire wasp stings (as soon as possible)

  12. Peyä tsatìpe’un a sweylu txo wivem ayoeng Omatikaya lu fe’.
    His decision that we should fight against the Omatikaya was a bad one.

Some notes

As you see, In these numbered examples, the words in green are used as separate words before the thing they work with. If it's working with a single word, it may go onto the end of the wordlikethis. So separate before, attached after. All adp. words work like that. The green Na'vi words in the numbered examples make the first letter change thing happen so watch out!

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